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6 Mar 2011
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Getting Started

There are basically two ways to make a web page. The first way is to create the page(s) offline and then upload them to your Internet Service Provider (ISP) via FTP. The second way is to create your web page(s) online using a Telnet program by accessing your UNIX account, if you have one.

If you are creating your web page(s) offline, do so in any text editing or word processing document. Make sure that when you save your document, you save it as a "text", "plain text" or "text only" document. Otherwise it will not be read properly by a web browser. Once you have created your page(s), you will need to contact your ISP about how to go about uploading them to your server.

If you have a UNIX account, you can create your web page(s) online. You first need to get a program that can access your UNIX account. I recommend Telnet for the Mac or Ewan for Windows 95/98.

Once you can access your account, you need to make a new directory called "public_html". You can do this by typing:

mkdir public_html
After this, change your directory to this new directory called "public_html".
cd public_html
If you want to, you can make other directories, one for all the web pages that you make, and one for all of the graphics that you have. Follow the same steps as above to do this.

Next, you need to think of a filename for your page (this is not a title, but what will be in the URL). A common filename for a main web page, is "index". Once you've decided on this, add ".html" to the end of it. Then type (i.e.)
pico index.html
Of course, use your page's filename, instead of this one. Next, you need to gain some knowledge of the many HTML commands. Lucky for you, I've already gotten some of the basic commands for you. Follow the index below, to decide what to put on your page, and how to do it. Once you've gotten started, exit your page. You can do this by pressing control-x. Then you need to type:
chmod 744 index.html
Only do this with the filename of your page. You only need to do this the very first time that you leave your web page. This command will make sure that nobody else can delete your page. You will need to do this to any other pages that you make in the future. Then, look at your page on the WWW. Lets say that your server is "www.domain.com", your username is "username", and the name of your page is "index.html". The URL would normally be:
However, you will need to contact your ISP for your URL.

If you have made separate directories for pages and graphics, then you need to include that in the URL also. Lets say that you made a directory for all of your web pages, called "Pages". The new URL would be: http://www.domain.com/~username/Pages/index.html


The first thing to put on your web page, is a title. The title is what will show up in the very top of the window. Let's say that your title is going to be "John Doe's Web Page", you would type:

<title>John Doe's Web Page</title>
In HTML, every command is surrounded by <'s, and >'s. And in most commands, you need to tell the web browser when to end this command. You do this by putting a back slash (/) in front of the ending command, as in above. Since HTML isn't case sensitive, <title> is the same as <TITLE>, which is the same as <TiTLe>. Next, you need to decide what you want to put on your page. Text, links, graphics, and text fields, are just a few ideas. Follow the table of contents above to decide how, and what to put on your page.



HTML has six levels of headings, numbered 1 through 6, with 1 being the largest. Headings are displayed in larger, or smaller fonts, and usually bolder. If you wanted to type "Hello", this is what you would type for each heading, and what the outcome is:








Whenever you have more than a sentence of writing, you should have paragraphs. Personally, I don't see what the difference is, but I do it anyway, because then I can find a certain spot better when programing. To Make a paragraph of "This is a web page. How do you like what I've done? Please e-mail me with any suggestions at a@a.com", type:

<P>This is a web page. How do you like what I've done? Please e-mail me with any suggestions at a@a.com</P>
The outcome is:
This is a web page. How do you like what I've done? Please e-mail me with any suggestions at a@a.com


There are two types of lists that you can make in HTML, dotted, and numbered. To make a dotted list of: red, orange, green, blue, purple, black, and brown, type:

<LI> red
<LI> orange
<LI> green
<LI> blue
<LI> purple
<LI> black
<LI> brown

The result is:
To make a numbered list of: red, orange, green, blue, purple, black, and brown, type:
<LI> red
<LI> orange
<LI> green
<LI> blue
<LI> purple
<LI> black
<LI> brown

The result looks like:

Forced Line Breaks

There are many cases in which you want to end typing on one line, and start on the next. To do this, you can use a simple HTML command. This is one of the few commands that you don't have to put an ending command on. Let's say that you wanted to say "Hello, how are you?", but with each word on a separate line. All you have to type is:

The outcome is:

Horizontal Rules

Every now and then, you might want to have a horizontal rule, or line in your page. Horizontal rules can be many different sizes and lengths. You can also have the line be solid black, by typing NOSHADE. Here are several examples of sizes and widths, and what the outcome is:

<HR SIZE=1 WIDTH=100%>

<HR SIZE=25 WIDTH=75%>
<HR SIZE=3 WIDTH=100%>
Character Formatting

You may want to format some of your text differently than others using text styles. There are several types of styles of text that you can use: bold, italic, underline, strikeout, superscript, subscript, teletype, and blinking text are examples. To do these styles, surround your text with the following commands:

<b>, </b> for bold

<i>, </i> for italic

<u>, </u> for underlined

<strike>, <strike> for strikeout

<sup>, </sup> for superscript

<sub>, </sub> for subscript

<tt>, </tt> for teletype

<blink>, </blink> for blinking text (very annoying)

You can also mix styles together like this!



When you make a link, you are making colored text or even a graphic (talked about later). When somebody clicks on this text, it will take them to another web page, or possibly a certain section of a web page. Let's say that you wanted to make a link from your web page, to Yahoo!. The URL of Yahoo! is:
To do this, you would type:

<A HREF="Yahoo">What ever text that you want to be colored goes here</A>
The result would be:
What ever text that you want to be colored goes here
You can go ahead and try it if you want to.

Links to Specific Sections

Sometimes, you might want to have a link that will take you further down a page, or to a certain section of another page. An example of this is the index to this web page. You click on the colored text, and it takes you to that section. To do this, you need to do two things. The first, is to make the link, and the second, is to make where the link will lead to. NOTE: You cannot make links to specific sections within a different document unless either you have write permission to the coded source of that document or that document already contains in-document named links.
1) To make the actual link, think of a name for the certain spot. Let's say you are going to call it "spot". If this certain spot is on the same page that the link is, you would type:

<A HREF="#spot">Colored Text
Otherwise, you would add "#spot" to the end of the URL.
2) Now, you need to make where the link will take you. Go to the spot where you want the link to take you, and type:
<A NAME = "spot">

Mailto Links

Most people like to have a link on their web page that automatically sends e-mail to an address. If you want to do this, and your name is Dan, and your e-mail address is a@a.com, type:

<A HREF="mailto:a@a.com">Dan</a>
Here is the result of typing this:


Putting Images On A Page

On almost EVERY web page on the net, there is some kind of graphic. I would HIGHLY RECOMMEND that you have AT LEAST one picture on your page. There are mainly two kinds of ways to have graphics on your web page. The first, is to use a graphic that is on another web page somewhere on the web. The second, is to upload the graphic to your own account. Personally, I prefer to use the upload method. If you are using the other way, there is always a chance that the person who made that page will decide to delete that graphic. Then a symbol with a circle, square, and triangle will appear where the graphic was supposed to be, sometimes it will look like it has been torn through the middle:


7 Apr 2011
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to ek site apne liye bna & ek mere liye.
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